Bryan Castro

At 10:56 PM, Eastern Daylight Time, on July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon. This event was made public to more than a billon people of people who could hear him could him graciously saying: “That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind” History Channel-1 . Armstrong was later joined by Buzz Aldrin, and together they collected about 41 pounds of moon soil, set up a solar wind experiment [and] among other experiments, and captured many pictures that still keep us in awe today. Perhaps the most notable feat that Armstrong and Aldrin accomplished that night was to raise an American flag in the surface of the moon. This event, which boosted national pride, was the denouement of the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union. The United States had terminated, it had won. Before they depart[ed], the astronauts left a plaque exclaiming: “Here men from the planet Earth first set foot on the moon--July 1969 A.D--We came in peace for all mankind." History Channel- 2
In spite of all of the national contentment, not everyone believes that Apollo 11 landed on the moon, or any other spacecraft for that matter. In fact, New York Times reporter John Schwartz has talked of a poll that revealed about 6% of Americans doubt that the moon landings could have ever happened and that the all pictures as well as video coverage are all false New York Times. There have been conspiracy theories [which their] [whose] proponents assure debunk the event that the majority of the world holds as true. These advocates have delineated reasons for which this event could have never taken place, they have given ample rationales to negate the evidence that man was on the moon, and they also claim to know exactly why the United States would [make] construct such a lie.
Although it is unimaginable for the layman to consider a moon landing, most people accept that the men have been on the moon before. There are groups of people [however] that think this feat would be impossible for a human. Just an example o f what these groups claim is that a person in space would not survive given the exposure to radiation from solar flares that navigate space and the Van Allen Belt the surrounds the earth. Organizations against these fervent moon landing-denying activists have also voiced their rebuttals in effort[s] to prove that Armstrong and Aldrin really could have[n] been, and were in space. To aforementioned claims, Robert Braeunig says that these groups are overstating the dangers of these two phenomena, at least in the context of the mission Braeunig. He states that while high-intensity solar flares [are] dangerous, one with low intensity would pose no threat to the astronauts. Moon Base Clauvis, an organization with the same as goal as Braeunig, argues that while [to] Van Allen Belt radiation can be a health concern, NASA ingeniously found the right angle at which to cross this area the fastest way and with the least radiation exposure Moon Base Clavius. Organizations that deny the moon landing[,] also explain that the surface of the moon would be too hot, over 280° F, for the astronauts to land. Braeunig says that while it is true that the moon’s surface can reach that temperature, the lack of an atmosphere would limit the convection of heat and [that] the white suits that the astronauts wore would help reflect most of heat away. In addition, MBC states that temperatures at ground level in San Francisco have been as [high as] 180° F, which is much higher than the air temperature in the area.
The photography associated with Apollo missions has also come into [under] attack. First of all, they argue that there is no way that camera film could have functioned efficiently and not melt[ed]. These people also state with assurance that a certain picture of an astronaut [who] is jumping cannot be true since his shadow can be seen nowhere, thereby negating its validity. In another, people wonder why the American flag was fluttering in the moon where there is no air, and therefore no wind. Other pictures are submitted to criticism because no stars are visible or because it seems as though artificial backgrounds were used in pictures. To counter the first argument, Braeunig explains that NASA had a contract with Kodak in order to produce a film, Estar polyester film, which would resist the heat of the moon’s surface and it would also be wrapped in white material, like the astronauts, [so] as to reflect heat away from it. The MBC argues that the man with [no] shadow, John Young, does indeed have a shadow (Figure 1). As for the moving flag, Braeunig says that the flag was not moving because of any wind but that it had just been moved by the astronaut beside it to put it in the ground (Figure 1). Though[t] the validity of the moon landing missions have come under attack, as one can see, most of the rationales given are do not hold up to the facts.



moon.jpg
Figure 1. John Young's is seen, to the right, when he is jumping. The flag (not the best picture of it) seems to be fluttering as if by the wind.