Exploring Mars
John Wilson Unit 4

Mars Exploration
Manned exploration of Mars presents an opportunity to fully realize the potential of human exploration. Such a journey would require a social, political and financial commitment unseen in character since the Moon exploration, and never seen before in terms of cost. Astronauts would not be able to return at will; they would be dependent upon the alignment of celestial bodies and the atmospheric conditions at the time. This alone presents a stark difference from all other explorations previously attempted.
The Benefits
Mars is an intriguing and exciting planet, and there are many adventures and findings that await explorers. We must prepare for these before we go, providing the tools that the explorers will use, anticipating as much as possible the situations they will encounter and preparing them for the unexpected. For the first time in a space exploration mission, it will be up to the crew to solve their own emergency problems. At the distance of Mars from the Earth, it can be as much as 40 minutes from the time a message goes out from Earth to the time an answer is received back on Earth. The crews and their systems must be able to accomplish their objectives in a highly autonomous manner.
Mars is an intriguing planet and always has been. Since ancient times it has been visible in the night sky and played a unique role in our science fiction. Due to the many differences that its environment has with Earth, challenges have always abounded as to how it would be explored. Early images ranged from showing terrain that was Moon-like and scattered with big craters to that which lacks water and has volcanic and features. This has led researchers to three unresolved questions: 1) Are there implications for environmental changes on Earth that can be gleaned from Mars?; and 2) Have atmospheric conditions changed on Mars, and if so, why?; and lastly 3) In the early days of Mars history, when it was more like Earth, was life apparent?
These three questions are the driving force behind a Mars Manned Mission. Solving these questions could very well lead to monumental changes in how we view our environment on Earth, biological change, and future possibilities inhabiting other environments away from Earth.
Martin Marietta and others have proposed a viable plan to achieve this effort. [Entitled]Titled ["Mars Direct["], the plan entails:
· Direct flight to and from the Martian surface. Artificial gravity provided en route. No earth orbit or lunar orbit rendezvous; no zero-G assembly operations or crewed monitoring of spacecraft in Mars orbit.
· Fuelling of the Earth Return Vehicle using propellant generated on Mars from the atmosphere.
· Extended operations on the Martian surface (555 days) as opposed to the 20 days for NASA 'fast' missions.[YOU NEED TO PUT THIS IN YOUR OWN WORDS, OR PUT INTO QUOTATIONS, AS IT COMES DIRECTLY FROM THE MARS DIRECT WEBSITE]
The Challenges
Settlement on Mars presents significant challenges, some of which can be overcome through ingenuity and others that we do not fully know the effects of. Challenges include the absence of a natural living environment, high cost of travel to and fro, health effects on astronauts, both physical and psychological, and lack of human interaction which could lead to fatigue, anxiety and depression. To combat these challenges, engineering will be relied upon that can ensure autonomy in case communications break down with Mission Control. The following table details the risk of and type of injury per man year.
Table 5.
Probabilities of occurrence of diseases and injuries during a 180 days mission to a lunar base
Disease or injury
----

Estimated incidence per man-year
----

Estimated incidence per mission
----



During transfer
On surface
Intestinal infectious diseases
0.001
8.76712E − 05
0.001972603
Non-zoonotic bacterial diseases
0.0002
1.75342E − 05
0.000394521
Viral disease
0.001
8.76712E − 05
0.001972603
Venereal diseases
0.001
8.76712E − 05
0.001972603
Malignant neoplasms
0.0008
7.0137E − 05
0.001578082
Endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, immunity (excludes dehydratation)
0.003
0.000263014
0.005917808
Disorders of thyroïd gland
0.0002
1.75342E − 05
0.000394521
Diseases of blood and blood forming organs
0.002
0.000175342
0.003945205
Psychoses
0.002
0.000175342
0.003945205
Neurotic disorders
0.01
0.000876712
0.019726027
Inflammatory diseases of the CNS
0.0003
2.63014E − 05
0.000591781
Epilepsy
0.0005
4.38356E − 05
0.000986301
Migraine
0.0005
4.38356E − 05
0.000986301
Disorders of eye and adnexa
0.04
0.003506849
0.07890411
Diseases of ear and mastoïd process
0.01
0.000876712
0.019726027
Cardiovascular disease
0.01
0.000876712
0.019726027
Acute respiratory infections
4
0.350684932
7.890410959
Pneumothorax
0.0005
4.38356E − 05
0.000986301
Dental disease
0.01
0.000876712
0.019726027
Digestive disease
0.05
0.004383562
0.098630137
Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, nephrosis
0.0002
1.75342E − 05
0.000394521
Urinary calculi
0.002
0.000175342
0.003945205
Cystitis
0.9
0.07890411
1.775342466
Disease of male genital organs
0.002
0.000175342
0.003945205
Disorders of breast and female organs
0.05
0.004383562
0.098630137
Infections of skin and subcutaneous tissue
0.9
0.07890411
1.775342466
Arthropathies and related disorders
0.02
0.001753425
0.039452055
Dorsopathies
0.02
0.001753425
0.039452055




Symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions
10
0.876712329
19.7260274




Fractures of the skull
0.002
0.000175342
0.003945205
Fracture of the spine and trunk
0.002
0.000175342
0.003945205
Fracture of upper limb
0.006
0.000526027
0.011835616
Fracture of lower limb
0.003
0.000263014
0.005917808
Dislocations
0.005
0.000438356
0.009863014
Sprains and strains
0.07
0.006136986
0.138082192
Head injury
0.002
0.000175342
0.003945205
Internal injury
0.0005
4.38356E − 05
0.000986301
Open wounds
0.01
0.000876712
0.019726027
Superficial injury
0.01
0.000876712
0.019726027
Contusions
0.02
0.001753425
0.039452055
crushing injury
0.01
0.000876712
0.019726027
Foreign bodies
0.01
0.000876712
0.019726027
Burns
0.01
0.000876712
0.019726027
Poisoning
0.002
0.000175342
0.003945205
Toxic effects
0.005
0.000438356
0.009863014
Radiation short term disease (standard limits respected)
0.00001
8.76712E − 07
1.9726E − 05
Radiation long-term disease (neoplasms induced) (standard limits respected)
0.0008
7.0137E − 05
0.001578082
Bone demineralisation (bone fracture risk if more than 15% on DEXA measurement)
0.8
0.070136986
1.578082192
Space adaptation syndrome (3 days duration)
0.009
0.000789041
0.017753425
Exercise capacity decrease (>at 20%/preflight, muscular and cardiovascular causes)
0.8
0.070136986
1.578082192
Orthostatic intolerance under ×g (2 days duration after landing)
0.006
0.000526027
0.011835616
Effects of reduced temperature
0.005
0.000438356
0.009863014
Effects of heat and light
0.007
0.000613699
0.013808219




All causes and illness
17.88526
1.567409096
35.26670466
Estimated mortality by illness
0.002
0.000175342
0.003945205
Estimated mortality by injury (excluding spacecraft failure)
0.0004
3.50685E − 05
0.000789041
Estimated mortality by illness or injury (excluding spacecraft failure)
0.0024
0.000210411
0.004734247
[INTERESTING TABLE.. WHERE DID YOU GET IT?]
In conclusion, Earth needs Mars. Further exploration of Mars will propel the cultural diversity our global society has embraced and increasingly relies upon. Life on Mars will demand increased technological progress that will lead to a multitude of innovation and lay the tendency to technological stagnate aside.
http://www.thespacereview.com/article/65/1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7ZGXXyFQGg
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1gN0OFnerg&feature=related
http://www.speculist.com/archives/000127.html
http://www.astronautix.com/craft/marirect.htm
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V3S-4GYH80K-5&_user=709070&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000039639&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=709070&md5=3bda1b64bbb8387c1cba652fc12857b7